Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty Publications

Title

Cholinesterase Inhibition and Toxicokinetics in Immature and Adult Rats After Acute or Repeated Exposures to Chlorpyrifos or Chlorpyrifos–oxon

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

7-2012

Journal Title

Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology

Volume

63

Issue

2

First Page

209

Last Page

224

DOI

10.1016/j.yrtph.2012.03.015

Abstract

The effect of age or dose regimen on cholinesterase inhibition (ChEI) from chlorpyrifos (CPF) or CPF–oxon (CPFO) was studied in Crl:CD(SD) rats. Rats were exposed to CPF by gavage in corn oil, rat milk (pups), or in the diet (adults) or to CPFO by gavage in corn oil. Blood CPF/CPFO levels were measured. With acute exposure, ChEI NOELs were 2mg/kg CPF for brain and 0.5mg/kg CPF for red blood cells (RBCs) in both age groups. In pups, ChEI and blood CPF levels were similar using either milk or corn oil vehicles. Compared to gavage, adults given dietary CPF (12h exposure) had greater RBC ChEI, but lower brain ChEI at corresponding CPF doses, indicating an effect of dose rate. With repeated CPF exposures, ChEI NOELs were the same across ages (0.5 and 0.1mg/kg/day for brain and RBCs, respectively). With CPFO dosing, the ChEI NOELs were 0.1mg/kg (acute) and 0.01mg/kg/day (repeated doses) for RBCs with no ChEI in brain at CPFO doses up to 0.5 (pup) or 10mg/kg (adult) for acute dosing or 0.5mg/kg/day for both ages with repeat dosing. Thus, there were no age-dependent differences in CPF ChEI via acute or repeated exposures. Pups had less ChEI than adults at comparable blood CPF levels. Oral CPFO resulted in substantial RBC ChEI, but no brain ChEI, indicating no CPFO systemic bioavailability to peripheral tissues.

Keywords

Chlorpyrifos, Chlorpyrifos&ndash, oxon, Cholinesterase inhibition, Comparative cholinesterase inhibition, Age-related sensitivity