The Functions of ὥστε in the New Testament
Annali di Storia dell'Esegesi
Greek grammars adequately treat ὥστε as a subordinating conjunction introducing a final or consecutive clause. This study gives a fuller explanation of the use of ὥστε as a subordinating conjunction introducing a descriptive clause; moreover, it provides the first detailed analysis of the use of ὥστε as an inferential particle introducing an independent clause. An analysis of the semantic relationships conveyed by the inferential ὥστε demonstrates that this is a marked syntactical structure that alerts the reader to the prominence of a clause. Lastly this study notices trends of usage in the NT. The dependent uses of ὥστε tend toward narrative texts with Matthew preferring its use and Luke avoiding it. More remarkable is that the independent use of ὥστε occurs in all the undisputed Pauline epistles while the same construction is absent entirely from the disputed Paulines.
Rogers, Trent A., "The Functions of ὥστε in the New Testament" (2013). Biblical and Theological Studies Faculty Publications. 417.