Engineering and Computer Science Faculty Grants


Research Initiation - Modeling of Surface Roughening

Document Type





surface roughening, national science foundation

Funding Agency

GOV-National Science Foundation


A three-dimensional finite element code, with polycrystal slip modeling capabilities, is used to predict the effects of surface roughening during bulk material deformation. Surface roughening effects, such as orange peel and roping, are a function of the individual crystal orientation and are of concern to metalforming companies such as the automotive and beverage can industries. The incorporation of microstructural models of polycrystal slip into finite element codes has been demonstrated. These codes have been used to couple the evolution of microstructural texture with the development of anisotropic material properties during bulk deformation. The current work extends these developments and looks at how surface roughening is related to individual grains on the free surface. As the underlying material deforms, the various orientations of the surface grains result in the activation of different slip systems. This results in the uneven surface. By modeling individual grains within each element of the mesh, the finite element model predicts the deformation of surface grains of different initial orientations during bulk processing. A combined experimental and numerical simulation approach is taken to validate the techniques developed, and then the modeling tools are used to investigate the sensitivity of surface roughness to a variety of process parameters.