Energy, Exergy and Friction Factor Analysis of Nanofluid as a Coolant for Electronics
Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research
Power dissipation, chip power consumption, and heat flux in electronic devices have been steadily increasing over the past decade, creating a need for improved methods of cooling them. Nanofluids can be used as coolant for these electronics to improve their thermal performance. This paper presents an analysis of the energy, exergy, and frictional efficiencies of different nanofluids that are used to cool electronics. This was done by creating an analytical model in which different nanofluids flowed (at 0.5 m/s) through a rectangular-shaped microchannel heat sink (with a constant heat flux). These different nanofluids consisted of water as a base fluid, with 0.4 to 2.0 vol % of copper oxide (CuO), aluminum oxide (Al2O3), and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles. The results generally showed that thermal resistance decreases as the volume fraction of nanoparticles is increased. The CuO-water nanofluid was found to be the best coolant in terms of both minimizing thermal resistance and maximizing the pressure reduction. The energy efficiency of the heat sink increases as the volume fraction of nanoparticles increases. A maximum energy efficiency of 98.9% was obtained using the CuO-water nanofluid (at 2.0 vol %). The Al2O3-water and TiO2-water nanofluids (also at 2.0 vol %) produced a maximum energy efficiency of 77.5% and 68.4%, respectively. The lowest exergy losses were: 19.2, 20.9, and 25.1 W for TiO2-water, Al2O3-water, and CuO-water nanofluids (all at 0.4 vol %), respectively. The dimensionless friction factor was reduced as the nanoparticle volume concentration increased. Also, the pumping power increased (to a high of 0.0173 W) as the mass flow rate increased.
Aluminum oxide, cupric oxide, electronic equipment, electronics, energy efficiency
Khaleduzzaman, S. S.; Saidur, R.; Mahbubul, I. M.; Ward, Thomas; Sohel, M. R.; Shahrul, I. M.; Selvaraj, J.; and Rahman, M. M., "Energy, Exergy and Friction Factor Analysis of Nanofluid as a Coolant for Electronics" (2014). Engineering and Computer Science Faculty Publications. 369.