Master of Science in Nursing Theses

Date Degree Awarded


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Nursing (M.S.N.)



Committee Chair

Amy Voris, D.N.P., RN, CNE

Second Committee Member

Clifford Fawcett, MSN, MEd, RN, CFNP

Third Committee Member

Jennifer de Klerk, MSN, RN


Quality of Life, Hemodialysis, Adolescent, End stage renal disease, Dialysis


Background: End stage renal disease (ESRD) is a permanent condition where the kidneys are unable to function at a level acceptable to sustain life. Dialysis or kidney transplantation are some of the treatments available to maintain patients’ health and well-being. The prevalence of adolescent and young adult patients living with end stage renal disease (ESRD) is increasing. According to the United States Renal Data System (2013), there are over 7,500 patients ages 19 years or younger with ESRD. More than 1,400 of these patients are receiving hemodialysis, this is a national increase of 10.1% for this age group from 2000 (USRDS, 2013). According to Network #9 (Ohio, Indiana, and Kentucky) of The Renal Network (2013), in 2012 there was 138 patients newly diagnosed with ESRD aged 0-24 years. Network #9 also reports 346 ESRD disease patients receiving hemodialysis as treatment for their disease. Many factors such as anemia, fatigue, and treatments have been studied and identified as having an impact on quality of life in adults. But these factors have not been studied in relation to ESRD and its treatment and the impact on an adolescent’s and young adults’ quality of life (QOL). One of these factors is anemia identified as decreased hemoglobin levels. Decreased hemoglobin levels have been associated with decreased energy level and fatigue which can affect quality of life. Exploring hemoglobin levels and their effect on the quality of life of adolescents and young adults is important, as adolescence is a stressful time regardless of health status.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore how the quality of life of adolescents and young adults (age 13-23) receiving hemodialysis for treatment of end stage renal disease have been affected by their disease and treatment. This research study sought to examine the correlation between hemoglobin levels during treatment and patients’ perceived fatigue levels and quality of life. The research question which was being asked was: Do higher hemoglobin levels correspond to a perceived higher quality of life in adolescents and young adults?

Method: The PedsQLTM End Stage Renal Disease Module version 3 Teen Report questionnaire was used to evaluate the perceived QOL of those patients receiving hemodialysis at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center (CCHMC). A retrospective audit of questionnaires and hemoglobin levels was completed on patients between the ages of 13-23 from October 1, 2011 to September 30, 2013. Means and standard deviations were obtained on hemoglobin levels, fatigue scores and quality of life scores. A Pearson’s R coefficient was used to determine if a correlation exists between hemoglobin levels and a patient’s perceived QOL.

Relevance: Understanding quality of life and factors influencing QOL is relevant to nurses and other practitioners in order to provide holistic care to their patients. Nurses need to understand the common factors and then assess each individual to determine if these factors exist for their patients. In this way the nurse can address these factors and implement strategies to help improve their patients QOL while they are undergoing hemodialysis for their ESRD.



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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License.

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