There are 267 births each minute throughout the world, employing one of two different pushing methods: delayed and spontaneous (withhold pushing after full dilation until irresistible urge); and immediate (push as soon as completely dilated). There are inconsistencies and gaps in research regarding the two methods of pushing in terms of maternal and fetal outcomes.
Douglas, Lydia; Drake, Katherine; and Schmidt, Sarah, "A Literature Review of Outcomes Related to Delayed and Spontaneous Pushing in Women During the Second Stage of Labor" (2012). Pharmacy and Nursing Student Research and Evidence-Based Medicine Poster Session. 24.
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