Pharmacy Practice Faculty Publications


Evaluation of Student Confidence of Science Between Didactic and Team-based Learning Formats

Document Type


Publication Date


Journal Title

American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education





First Page


Article Number



Objectives: To evaluate student perceptions of science between didactic and team-based learning (TBL) formats at two universities.

Method: A 21-item instrument was administered at the beginning and conclusion of a biochemistry course at two universities (one TBL, one didactic). The instrument examined student perceptions of science utilizing the theory of planned behavior (TPB) domains of perceived behavioral control, subjective norm, and attitude (13 questions, 7- point, Likert-type, 1=Strongly Agree,7=Strongly Disagree) as well as confidence in learning science concepts (8 questions, 5-point, Likert-type, Not at all confident to Extremely confident). Pre-post assessments were evaluated using paired t-tests and differences between universities were evaluated using independent t-tests.

Results: The TBL university (N=53, 100% response) and the didactic university (N=58, 92% response) students completed both instruments. There were significant differences in baseline responses on one perception (e.g. apply science knowledge in my future career) and one confidence question (e.g. apply knowledge of mechanisms and dysregulation to disease management) (p<0.05). Student perceptions of science improved significantly on 7 of 13 questions for TBL (p<0.05) and 12 of 13 questions for didactic (p<0.05). Student confidence in learning science concepts improved significantly on all questions for TBL students (p<0.001) and on 7 of 8 questions for didactic (p<0.05). Combined analyses of both schools showed significant results on 12 of 13 perceptions and all 8 confidence questions (p<0.05).

Implications: Based on the results, TBL and didactic/lecture in a biochemistry course were equivalent in improving student perceptions and confidence in learning science concepts. Either approach could be considered based on faculty preference.


Student confidence, pharmacy students, team-based learning, didactic learning