Pharmacy Practice Faculty Publications


Evaluation of Student Self-Care Confidence in Two Team-based Learning Formats

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Journal of the American Pharmacists Association





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Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate student perceptions and confidence of self-care concepts using a team-based learning (TBL) format at 2 universities.

Methods: TBL has been increasingly utilized in higher education because active learning aids in promoting self-directed learning and adaptability in problem-solving situations while improving student performance and increasing active learning time. A 32-item instrument was administered at the beginning and conclusion of a self-care course at 2 universities. The instrument examined student perceptions of self-care utilizing the theory of planned behavior (TPB) domains of perceived behavioral control, subjective norm, and attitude (13 questions, 7-point, Likert-type, [1 = strongly agree; 7 = strongly disagree]), and confidence in learning self-care concepts using Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory (19 questions, 5-point, Likert-type, “not at all confident” to “extremely confident”). Pre- and post-assessments were evaluated using paired t tests and differences between universities using independent t tests since the data were normally distributed. Instrument reliability was measured using Cronbach alpha.

Results: A total of 117 students were assigned to TBL teams. Cedarville (N = 53, 100% response) and Manchester (N = 58, 92% response) students completed both instruments. Student self-care perceptions with TPB improved significantly on 8 of 13 questions for Cedarville (P0.8, respectively).

Conclusion: Data indicate TBL was effective in improving student confidence in self-care concepts. Since pharmacists must utilize self-directed learning to continually expand their knowledge of pharmacy and be adaptable in problem-solving situations, it is important to establish these skill sets prior to entering the profession.


Pharmacy students, self-care, education, confidence, team-based learning