Pharmacy Practice Faculty Publications


Recommended Basic Science Foundation Necessary to Prepare Pharmacists to Manage Personalized Pharmacotherapy

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Publication Date


Journal Title

Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy





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In recent years, the United States Food and Drug Administration has approved revised labeling for several existing drugs to include pharmacogenomic information, marking an important step toward more personalized medicine. In addition, it is anticipated that many newly approved drugs may be restricted to use in individuals with certain genotypes. In response to the wealth of pharmacogenomic data generated during the past decade and its implications for pharmacy practice, the American College of Clinical Pharmacy Educational Affairs Committee was charged with describing the basic science foundation necessary to prepare future pharmacists to manage personalized, pharmaco-genetically driven therapy. The committee identified four key areas deemed essential components of a pharmacy curriculum related to advances in genomics: personalized medicine concepts and terminology, with a focus on genomics; genomic applications in basic and applied pharmaceutical sciences; biotechnology; and bioinformatics. Each section of this commentary contains one or more broad curricular outcomes to be achieved, suggested implementations to address each outcome, and benchmark performance indicators of learning outcomes for recent graduates from doctor of pharmacy educational programs. There was unanimous agreement among committee members that the curricular outcomes described are the minimum expectation for future pharmacists to provide optimal patient care in the era of personalized medicine. Material taught in each area should evolve with progress in the field, particularly for gene-drug response associations, biotechnology, and bioinformatics. As the areas of proteomics, metabolomics, and epigenetics evolve along with their implications for personalized drug therapy, they should also be incorporated into the curriculum. Self-directed learning behaviors should be encouraged, when possible, to better prepare students to advance their skills and knowledge with the science. Faculty development will likely be necessary for the widespread education of pharmacy students in personalized medicine. It is our hope that this commentary will serve as a useful resource for academicians involved in curricular content development for pharmacy students.


Pharmacogenetics, pharmacogenomics, personalized medicine, pharmacy, curriculum, pharmacists, pharmacy education