Comparison of Ceftriaxone and Antipseudomonal β-Lactam Antibiotics Utilized for Potential AmpC β-Lactamase Producing Organisms
Background: Induction of antibiotic resistance is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in AmpC β-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae. The use of ceftriaxone is controversial for treatment of these organisms due to concerns for inducible resistance. This study was designed to compare treatment failure rates between ceftriaxone and antipseudomonal β-lactam antibiotics when used as definitive therapy for organisms most commonly associated with chromosomal AmpC β-lactamase production. Methods: A retrospective, single-center cohort study was performed enrolling patients hospitalized with monomicrobial Enterobacter, Citrobacter, or Serratia spp. infections. The primary objective compared proportion of treatment failure between groups. All patients received either ceftriaxone or an antipseudomonal β-lactam alone within 24 hours of culture finalization, and with a duration of at least 72 hours for definitive treatment. Treatment failure was defined as either clinical failure (abnormal white blood cell count or temperature on day 7 or 14 post-antibiotics) or microbiologic failure (regrowth of the same organism at same site within 14 or 21 days). Results: Of 192 total patients, treatment failure was observed in 24/71 patients (34%) receiving ceftriaxone and in 42/121 patients (35%) receiving antipseudomonal β-lactam (P = .98). No difference was observed between clinical or microbiologic failure rates between groups. The ceftriaxone group had significantly more patients undergoing treatment for urinary tract infections (51% vs 17%, P < .001), but treatment failure rates remained similar between groups when comparing infections of all other sources. Conclusion: Ceftriaxone has comparable treatment failure rates to antipseudomonal β-lactams for susceptible Enterobacteriaceae infections and may be considered as a therapeutic option. Further, prospective research is needed to validate optimal dosing and application in all sites of infection.
AmpC, Enterobacteriaceae, ceftriaxone, piperacillin-tazobactam, cefepime, meropenem, treatment failure
Peters, David M.; Winter, Jessica B.; Droege, Christopher A.; Ernst, Neil E.; and Liao, Siyun, "Comparison of Ceftriaxone and Antipseudomonal β-Lactam Antibiotics Utilized for Potential AmpC β-Lactamase Producing Organisms" (2020). Pharmacy Practice Faculty Publications. 408.