Historically the theory of evolution has always been an appendage of the theory of matter and specifically the theory of the atom. The current quantum mechanical theories of the atom represent the matter of the universe as being governed by random statistical processes. Thus they provide the necessary theoretical foundations for the theory of evolution. The theory of evolution of living things requires random processes to occur to produce mutations or changes that can be directed by certain selection principles, such as survival of the fittest.

This work identifies the false assumptions of the quantum models of the atom. It shows that these theories violate the logical principles that undergird the development of scientific theories and do not qualify as science. A new rudimentary theory of the atom based on combinatorial geometry is presented that can satisfactorily predict all the properties of the periodic table of the elements as well as explain the basis of chemical valence and bonding. This new theory of the atom is based on classical electrodynamics and represents an orderly universe governed by the laws of cause and effect. It satisfies the logical prinCiples undergirding science, and it does not support theories of evolution.


Atom, Mach's Criteria, combinatorial geometry, ring model, finite size effects, magnetic moment, logic, evolution theory, theoretical foundation, shells, packing model


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