The kidney is an excellent biochemical model showing design in nature. Design implies a designer. The development of the kidney follows a very precise pattern and time schedule. The anatomy and physiology of the kidney and the entire urinary system are complex and precise. This is true when regarding the urinary system alone; and also, in studying its relationship to other systems. The urinary system is tied in with the circulatory and nervous systems In very unique fashion. Each part Is carefully integrated Into the whole system to form a homeostatic control network that operates efficiently in a large number of metabolic states. Each section of the urinary system is specific, yet completely dependent on other sections. Three separate mechanisms are involved in forming the end product, urine. These are filtration, reabsorption, and secretion. Filtration takes place in the glomerulus. Reabsorption and secretion occur in the tubules. The circulatory system of the kidney is unique. The capillaries in the glomerulus are more porous than capillaries elsewhere In the body. The medulla contains a specialized capillary network which forms a countercurrent mechanism along with a hairpin design. This arrangement is not found elsewhere in the body, or in any organisms except mammals and birds. This countercurrent system creates a concentration gradient which enables the production of a concentrated end product while preserving necessary ions for the body. Mechanisms within the kidney enable it to modify its function; yet function is also sensitive to hormone and neurological input. In this way, the kidney is sensitive to needs and changes throughout the entire organism. Biochemical engineers create artificial models to take the place of diseased kidneys. These models require the input of intelligence and design, yet fall short of the precision of the natural model. Therefore, I conclude that the kidney was designed by a superintelligence beyond the scope of nature.


Active transport. ADH. afferent. aldosterone. brush border. capsule. concentration gradient. convoluted tubule. cortex, design, dialysis, efferent, glomerulus, hairpin loop, homeostasis, integration, juxtaglomerular apparatus, kidney, macula densa, medulla, metanephros, nephron, osmolality, permeability, purpose, reabsorption, renin, secretion, sodium cycle, symmetry, urea cycle, vasa recta


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