Evidence for the evolution of eukaryotes from prokaryotes is critically examined. It is concluded that an enormous gap exists between the two basic cell types that has not, and cannot, be bridged by transitional forms. Organelles of a large number of putative ancient cells have been uncovered, mostly preserved in amber. It was found that these cells were all unambiguously either prokaryotic or eukaryotic, and none was in between. This complete absence of the required series of transitional forms indicates that only two basic life forms have ever existed.

The most popular effort to bridge this gap is the theory of endosymbiosis popularized by Lynn Margulis. This theory postulates that some of the eukaryote organelles evolved from other organisms which took residence in primitive prokaryotic cells. Many major problems with this hypothesis were reviewed, leading to the conclusion that it is widely accepted by default because it is the most plausible hypothesis and not because of empirical evidence. This critically important gap has rarely been discussed by evolutionists partially because it is difficult even to hypothesize plausible putative transitional links. This gap is a serious, if not a fatal, problem for macroevolution. Conversely, the creation world view fully explains what is found in the natural world.


Prokaryotes, eukaryotes, endosymbiosis, cell evolution, cell ultrastructure, transitional forms


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