This research is a continuation of recent efforts to expand classical electrodynamics to embrace elastic finite-size elementary particles with internal structure in an effort to satisfy the logical criteria that undergird the scientific method and point scientific theories in the direction of truth. Earlier work reported the logical inconsistencies, false assumptions, and defects of the relativistic quantum electrodynamic theory of the atom, including relativity theory and quantum mechanics.[14] This was followed by derivations of Maxwell's equations of electrodynamics showing where the point particle approximation is used and the field transformation information between moving frames is removed causing them to fail for relativistic phenomena.[15) Then the principal results of special relativity theory were derived from classical electrodynamics for finite size elementary particles using the Galilean transformation .[16] More recent research has shown from combinatorial geometry for arbitrary-shaped finite size electrons and protons obeying classical electrodynamics under the assumption of spherical packing symmetry that the details of the periodic table of the elements as well as the structure of the nucleus could be predicted more completely and accurately than previously possible with the relativistic quantum theories.[16,17,18) This work derives expressions for the blackbody radiation, the photoelectric effect, and the emission spectra of atoms from classical electrodynamics for finite size electrons in the shape of a toroidal ring. The results are logically superior to the relativistic quantum electrodynamic theory as developed by Planck, Einstein, and Dirac and describe experimental data previously unexplained by quantum electrodynamics.


Truth. logical criteria, logic, scientific method, quantum theory, quantum mechanics, relativity theory, blackbody radiation, photoelectric effect, Dirac equation, quantum electrodynamics, atomic theory, extreme ultraviolet emission spectrum, classical electrodynamics


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