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This paper highlights features of living organisms that go beyond that of machines on the one hand and computational devices on the other. These features exceed those of human crafted artifacts, as well as demonstrate insight and creativity in their creation. It will be demonstrated that they cannot arise from natural processes but are the result of mind and intelligence. It is hoped that the biocentric design attributes described here would augment irreducible complexity and specified complexity as evidence of design in living organisms. The issues addressed are of particular relevance in the light of recent discoveries in epigenomics and metagenomics, as well as developments in the new disciplines of systems biology and synthetic biology. Just as these disciplines focuses on designing biological systems, so too biology is no less than the science of how living organisms are designed. This paradigm shift could lead to the discovery of universal laws and scientific explanations of how living organisms are designed, superseding historical narratives in evolutionary biology.


Irreducible complexity, specified complexity, epigenomics, metagenomics, systems biology, synthetic biology, Jackson-Messick model of creative cognition, insight-based design, metaphysics design, definition of life, abiogenesis


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