Mark Amunrud


What is space? Leucippus and Empedocles disagreed (Lederman, 1993). Leibniz and Newton differed (Alexander, 1956). Einstein disputed with himself (Einstein, 1920). The issue is not resolved today (Smolin, 2001).

This paper presents a new hypothesis about space: Gravity Warps Paired Spaces (GWPS). GWPS originates from Biblical descriptions of space. The Bible describes paired spaces that were created and stretched out. This indicates that space is a physical substance and consists of small pieces – paired spaces. If space consists of pieces that can stretch in size, the number of spaces per meter can change. How can space be measured consistently?

GWPS suggests that science has overlooked the fundamental measurement of space, the intrinsic measurement – counting the spaces. In one sense this new measurement does not change anything. All existing measurements are still valid. On the other hand, this new measurement affects every area of science because existing measurements of space are not consistent. This is a paradigm shift.

GWPS agrees with Relativity that the speed of light is constant. However, GWPS claims the units should be ‘spaces per second’ not ‘meters per second’. This change makes no difference in measurements on earth. However, for distant stars it reduces the light travel time by seven orders of magnitude.


Bible, space, measurement, light, time, relativity


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