Addresses of All Authors

Tichomir Tenev, Mississippi State University, Department of Computational Engineering, Mississippi State University, MS 39762

John Baumgardner, Logos Research Associates, 24515 Novato Place, Ramona, CA 92065, USA M.F. Horstemeyer, Center for Advanced Vehicular Systems, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762, USA

Author's Biography

Tichomir Tenev has an M.Eng. degree in computer science and electrical engineering from MIT as well as BS degrees in mathematics and computer science also from MIT. He is currently pursuing a Ph.D. degree in computational engineering at Mississippi State University researching an elastic constitutive model of spacetime and its applications to General Relativity and Cosmology. Since 1996, Tichomir has held top software engineering positions at several Silicon Valley companies such as VMware, and most recently Instart Logic.

John Baumgardner has a Ph.D. in geophysics and space physics from UCLA and worked at Los Alamos National Laboratory in computational physics research during most of his scientific career. Since the early 1980’s he has undertaken most of the primary research undergirding the concept of catastrophic plate tectonics in connection with Noah’s Flood. Beginning in 1997 he served on the Radioisotopes and the Age of the Earth (RATE) team that documented multiple independent lines of radioisotope evidence that the earth is thousands, not billions, of years old. Since 2005 he has been part of a small team that has developed Mendel’s Accountant, a computer model for exploring key topics population genetics relating to the origin and history of life. John currently is a senior research associate with Logos Research Associates based in Santa Ana, California, and teaches science apologetics courses at Southern California Seminary in the San Diego area.

Mark Horstemeyer earned a Ph.D. degree from Georgia Institute of Technology in Mechanical Engineering and Math and Materials (minors) in 1995. As a fellow of four societies (ASME, ASM, SAE, and AAAS) Dr. Horstemeyer has garnered national and international acclaim having published over 400 journal articles, conference papers, books, and technical reports. He is currently a Giles Distinguished Professor at Mississippi State University (MSU) and professor in the Mechanical Engineering Department at MSU (2002-present) holding a Chair position for the Center for Advanced Vehicular Systems (CAVS) in Computational Solid Mechanics and is the Chief Technical Officer for CAVS.


We present a solution for the distant starlight problem that is consistent with Scripture, Special Relativity, and observations of a young cosmos that is based on a special divine choice of initial conditions and a new synchrony convention. The initial conditions constrain the spacetime coordinates of all stellar creation events (Genesis 1:17) to be just outside the past light cone of Earth’s Day Four but within the past light cone of Earth’s Day Five while also being causally independent from one another. The synchrony convention interprets God’s numbering of the creation days in Genesis 1 as prescribing a time coordinate for each location in the cosmos, a coordinate we call the Creation Time Coordinate (CTC). The CTC at a given star is defined as the elapsed time since that star was created plus three days. Two events are considered simultaneous (synchronous), if and only if, they have the same CTCs. We show that for these initial conditions and synchrony convention, starlight emitted on Day Four (stellar CTC) arrives at Earth also on Day Four (Earth CTC). Our solution is a reformulation of Lisle’s solution (Newton 2001, Lisle 2010), but ours spells out the required initial conditions, without which Lisle’s solution is ambiguous. It also replaces Lisle’s use of the Anisotropic Synchrony Convention, which is an observer-specific subjective definition of simultaneity, with the CTC synchrony convention, which is a divinely-prescribed objective definition of simultaneity. Our solution predicts that stellar objects should appear youthful, because the light we receive from them displays them at only a few thousand years after their creation. We show for our own galaxy the number of observed supernova remnants and observed supernova frequency support this prediction. Finally, we discuss the strong agreement among current creationist cosmologies regarding spacetime coordinates of stellar creation events relative to the creation of the Earth itself.


Cosmology, cosmological history, distant starlight problem, creation time coordinates, young distant cosmos, missing supernova remnants, synchrony conventions, special relativity




DigitalCommons@Cedarville provides a publication platform for fully open access journals, which means that all articles are available on the Internet to all users immediately upon publication. However, the opinions and sentiments expressed by the authors of articles published in our journals do not necessarily indicate the endorsement or reflect the views of DigitalCommons@Cedarville, the Centennial Library, or Cedarville University and its employees. The authors are solely responsible for the content of their work. Please address questions to dc@cedarville.edu.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.