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Creation Ministries International

PO Box 350

Powder Springs, GA 30127

Author's Biography

Robert received his PhD from the University of Miami in 2003. With a background in genetics, gene cloning and sequencing, and transgenics, he soon began to work on the GENE project team (ICR), then as a speaker for Creation Ministries International. Over the years, he has published multiple papers directed toward building a biblical model of human genetic history.

Presentation Type

Full Paper Presentation


There is a discrepancy between the mutation rate we can measure today and the rate at which evolution is supposed to have proceeded. The former is sometimes called the genealogical mutation rate, for it is obtained by comparing individuals whom we know to be related. The latter is sometimes called the phylogenetic mutation rate. It is calculated by counting the fixed differences between two species and dividing by the estimated time since their common ancestor. Genealogical mutation rates are generally several orders of magnitude faster than phylogenetic estimates. This causes problems for the evolutionary model. For example, using the genealogical method would place Y Chromosome Adam and Mitochondrial Eve well within the biblical timeframe. The evolutionary community often uses appeals to natural selection or genetic drift to explain away the discrepancy. Population modeling software and simple statics can be used to show that these explanations do not work. The genealogical mutation rate is a serious challenge to evolutionary theory.


Astrophysics and Astronomy | Biblical Studies | Biology | Education | Engineering | Geology | Philosophy | Physics


phylogeny, genealogy, mutation, Y Chromosome Adam, Mitochondrial Eve, natural selection, genetic drift




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