Addresses of All Authors

Institute for Creation Research

1806 Royal Lane

Dallas, TX 75229

Author's Biography

Timothy L. Clarey earned a Ph.D. and B.S. (summa cum laude) from Western Michigan University, and a M.S. from University of Wyoming, all in geology. He worked for nearly a decade as an exploration geologist for Chevron and then spent 17 years as a public college professor. His publications include numerous articles on the geology of the Rocky Mountain region. He has written and/or co-authored six books, including Dinosaurs: Marvels of God’s Design (Master Books). His latest book, Carved in Stone: Geological Evidence of the Worldwide Flood, was published by ICR in 2020. Tim currently works as a Research Scientist for ICR.

Davis J. Werner is an undergraduate student, with the goal of earning a degree in geology. He has worked at ICR since 2015 as a Research Associate.

Presentation Type

Full Paper Presentation


Over 3000 stratigraphic columns have been compiled across North and South America, Europe, Africa and Asia using oil wells, measured sections and seismic data. Phanerozoic fossil-bearing rocks are divided into six packages of sedimentation based on the “mega-sequences” concept of Sloss. Maps of individual megasequences across the continents and the total volumes show the earliest megasequences have the least extent and lowest average volume of sediment. Subsequent megasequences show progressively more coverage and more sediment volume. Most continents show a maximum peak in both coverage and thickness in the in the 4th or 5th megasequence.

We interpret these data to represent a progressive Flood that aligns with Genesis 7 and with the predictions of catastrophic plate tectonics (CPT). Initial plate motion and the creation of small amounts of new seafloor spread the earliest megasequences across limited portions of the continental crust. These earliest megasequences stack one on top of the another in the same locations. Continued creation of new seafloor pushed the water progressively upward. This process peaked near the end of the 5th sequence (Zuni) where we observe the maximum extent of sediment and maximum volume of sediment globally. Subsequent cooling of the new seafloor caused ocean basins to sink, drawing water off the continents. This caused a shift in sedimentation to the offshore as the Flood rapidly receded during the 6th megasequence (Tejas).

A progressive Flood model also provides a framework for the fossil record. The earliest three megasequences (Sauk, Tippecanoe and Kaskaskia) seem to have inundated only shallow marine environments as the fossils within these megasequences are almost exclusively marine. We interpret these were deposited in the first 40 Days of the Flood. As the water rose higher, floating the Ark (on or after Day 40) and flooding the dry land, the first massive coal seams appear and the first land animal fossils appear in great numbers. This process continued flooding higher elevations, depositing the Absaroka and Zuni megasequences between Days 40-150 of the Flood, until the water covered the highest hills.

The beginning of the Flood is often marked by the rocks of the Sauk megasequence, and at times coincides with the Cambrian explosion. In other places, later megasequences were deposited directly on crystalline basement, such as the Absaroka and Zuni. These locations represent the onset of flooding at these sites as the waters rose high enough to inundate the higher land elevations. However, in some locations, particularly near Late Proterozoic volcanic activity, the Flood record appears to have begun prior to the Sauk megasequence. These pre-Sauk rocks may represent sediments and volcanic rocks deposited and extruded during the earliest days or weeks of the Flood.

Rock data also indicate that the Middle East, North Africa and much of Europe was still inundated through the time of deposition of most of the Upper Cenozoic (Tejas) sediments. Stratigraphic columns across Syria and Iraq show continuous carbonate, salt and/or marine sand deposition from the Cretaceous up through, and including, the Miocene and sometimes the Pliocene level. These rock data suggest the post-Flood boundary is high in the Cenozoic.

CPT and a progressive Flood is also supported by strontium ratios. Higher 87Sr/86Sr values are primarily caused by increased weathering of the continental crust, and its influx into the oceans. Lower 87Sr/86Sr values are likely from formation of new ocean crust and hydrothermal activity. The observed global 87Sr/86Sr ratio drops progressively throughout the Phanerozoic until reaching its lowest values in the Zuni megasequence (about the Jurassic level), closely matching the stratigraphic data mapped globally as both peak simultaneously in the Zuni megasequence, one low and one high (an inverse relationship).

We suggest changes in the 87Sr/86Sr ratio were primarily driven by the production of new seafloor. During deposition of the earliest megasequences, only small amounts of new seafloor were added. This pushed sea level up slightly at the beginning of the Flood year, depositing the first three megasequences and lowering the 87Sr/86Sr ratio. As more seafloor was created, the water rose higher, depositing the later megasequences, until the water reached its highest level (and lowest 87Sr/86Sr values) during the Zuni megasequence. 87Sr/86Sr ratios rose again during the Tejas as less seafloor was created and sea level dropped.

The global stratigraphic record documents a progressive Flood that was limited in the first 40 Days of the Flood year. Data indicate the Flood peaked at about the K-Pg boundary on Day 150. CPT provides the most viable mechanism for the Flood through the production of new seafloor. Shifts in the global 87Sr/86Sr ratio confirm that rapid production of new seafloor likely controlled the increase in the water level until peaking on Day 150, matching the stratigraphic data.




megasequence, progressive Flood, CPT, strontium ratio, fossil record, Flood boundary




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