Addresses of All Authors

11910 Buttercup Lane, Fredericksburg, Virginia 22407 U.S.A.

Author's Biography

Biography: James C. Rakestraw, PE, CFM

James has a Bachelor of Science in Geological Engineering from Michigan Technological University. He is a Professional Engineer and Certified Floodplain Manager. He practices civil engineering with a concentration on hydrology, hydraulics, and floodplain management. He recently retired as a registered Combined Administrator for Erosion Control and Stormwater Management with the Virginia Department of Environmental Resources.

His experience in geological engineering consisted of geologic mapping in the Eagle Mine at Gilman, Colorado. There, he was able see firsthand the Great Unconformity in the Eagle River canyon.

Presentation Type

Poster Presentation


The geology, tectonics, and hydraulics of the regression of the Flood formed much of the geomorphology of Virginia. Opportunities to view and study geology and geomorphology are available through visiting parks, traveling on public roads, and viewing geographic information system (GIS) resources.

Virginia is part of the North American Plate. A series of “blocks” of basement rocks within the plate underlie the geomorphological provinces of Virginia. These “blocks” form a series of steps between the Atlantic Ocean Basin and the Blue Ridge. The “Fall Line” found in Virginia is a fault between two blocks of basement rock. The basement rocks on the downthrow side underlie the Coastal Plain geomorphological province of Virginia, and the basement rocks on the upthrow side underlie the Piedmont geomorphological province.

Most creationists and non-creationists agree that they are observing the regression of a flood. For non-creationists, observations are interpreted as the regression of the last of a series of near-global floods. For creationists, observations are interpreted as the regression of a single flood - the Flood described in the book of Genesis. There are aspects of the regression of the Flood that warrant additional study. Some areas for additional study include: 1) quantifying energy requirements, identifying sources of energy and explaining dissipation of energy; 2) exploring the relationship of tectonics to “Triassic Basins,” diabase intrusions, granitic intrusions and mineral deposits; 3) researching the thick layers of quartzite pebbles in a matrix of clay rich soils that cover portions of eastern Virginia; 4) exploring the formation of water gaps and wind gaps in the Blue Ridge; 5) developing a database to tabulate the elevations of the basement rocks and the strata above them; and 6) distinguishing Flood and post-flood deposits.

Virginia is an excellent location in which to develop a better understanding of the regression of the Flood. Recently developed tools in plate tectonics, catastrophic plate tectonics, high energy hydraulics, high energy sedimentation, and GIS can all provide new opportunities to understand and appreciate the regression of the Flood in Virginia.




Flood, geology, regression, Virginia, geomorphology, tectonics, hydraulic




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Submission Type


Included in

Geology Commons



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