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Steven Gollmer

Cedarville University

251 N. Main Street

Cedarville, Ohio 45314

Author's Biography

Dr. Gollmer is a Senior Professor of Physics at Cedarville University. He holds a PhD in Atmospheric Science from Purdue University. His research interests include analysis of satellite imagery and climate modeling. He teaches an honors course comparing different worldviews as they relate to questions of physical, biological, and human origins.

Presentation Type

Full Paper Presentation


For the past half-century, creationists have explored different explanations for glacial erosion features across the Northern Hemisphere. The best explanation to date is a single post-flood ice age with multiple surges. The challenge with this model is the limited time available between the end of the Flood and the time of Abraham, which appears to be post ice age. Oard (1979) proposed a short post-flood ice age developing due to warm oceans, volcanic aerosols, and barren surfaces. Performing computer climate simulations, Spelman (1996), Vardiman (1998), Gollmer (2013), and Gollmer (2018) verified that enhance precipitation occurs at higher latitudes due to a warm Arctic Sea. However, this precipitation is in the form of rain. In addition, the precipitation primarily falls over oceans rather than land, which is necessary for the buildup of ice sheets.

Using a climate model with a dynamic atmosphere and ocean, this paper reports on a multi-century climate simulation that begins with warm oceans and an enhanced stratospheric aerosol layer. The length of the simulation allows oceans with a uniform temperature of 24 °C to transition towards modern day values. Initial cooling of the oceans results in surface water penetrating to great depths. After sufficient cooling, the surface circulation decouples from the deep ocean due to the development of a thermocline. This transition in ocean circulation may have implications when interpreting proxy climate data.

Once the oceans sufficiently cool, snow can accumulate at higher latitudes and initiate the buildup of ice sheets. Ocean circulation, precipitation patterns, and annual snow accumulation are examined to evaluate the feasibility of an ice age initiated by a warm ocean. The timing of ice sheet initiation also provides a reference point from which to associate other post-flood events. Finally, limitations to this modeling method are discussed and future research opportunities are proposed.


Engineering | Physics


Climate Modeling, Ice Age




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